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MIT Press. ISBN Programming Pearls. Blaauw and Frederick P. Computer Architecture: Concepts and Evolution. Not just a cookbook, this also surveys the design issues in version-control systems. Converting a UNIX. COM Site to Windows. The Mythical Man-Month. Advantages and Disadvantages of Conservative Garbage Collection.
Thorough discussion of tradeoffs between garbage-collected and non-garbage-collected environments. Learning GNU Emacs. Cannon, R. Elliot, L. Kirchhoff, J. Miller, J. Milner, R. Mitzw, E. Schan, N. Recommended C Style and Coding Standards. An updated version of the Indian Hill C Style and Coding Standards paper, with modifications by the last three authors. It describes a recommended coding standard for C programs.
The Innovator's Dilemma. A fascinating and lucid examination of how and why technology companies doing everything right get mugged by upstarts. A business book technical people should read. Douglas Comer. October The Inmates Are Running the Asylum. Despite some occasional quirks and crotchets, this book is a trenchant and brilliant analysis of what's wrong with software interface designs, and how to put it right.
The projects focus on trans-disciplinary multi-layered, analogue and digital, collaborative design processes grounded in GIGA-Mapping for prototypes generation. The two are placed to public and natural environment complexity for its interaction. This interaction is engaging co-living and co-creation across the particular urban landscape eco-system and interpretation through multi-genre performers and visitors of its festival EnviroCity. Some of the prototyping and mapping projects focus more on detailed, other than human, environmental interaction development and its prototypical observation.
This is followed by architectural application speculations and its referential studies on traditional architectures see Figure 1. While the development of the first and very early research stage prototype is followed by GIGA-Mapping of its environmental interactions speculations supported by sampling, the prototyping research takes four feedback-looping paths that are however interconnected with the other two projects:. Through the long-term prototypical observation, the development of climate-material interaction and related biotic agency is taking place in time when it is co-designed by the mentioned.
In the same time, the new prototype that is trying to answer firstly observed weaknesses is built and observed again. This is within the same time confronted with related historical references of possible applications see Figure 1 to lead to the planned use in practice. Such approach is gaining from collective trans-disciplinary knowledge gathered through multiple stakeholders with co-design GIGA-Mapping. One of the key intervention is responsive wood insect hotel TreeHugger, parasitting on a tree trunk in the middle of a central urban eco-top. TreeHugger is a small object.
All this is integrated through the multi-genre festival EnviroCity, representing the synergy of natural, social and cultural environment with its generative agendas of recipes for DIY. Therefore, the project on architectural sustainable solution has transformed to the sustainable solution for eco-systems. The full scale prototyping in reference to co-design process was largely discussed by Capjon Capjon, The paper concludes with that there is a necessity of mixing analogue and digital processes based on the involved agency and its position in time and these need to be multi-layered.
Capjon, J. Engaged Collaborative Ideation supported through Material Catalysation. In Nordes — In the Making pp. Central Intelligence Agency. Prague: Czech Republic Ministry of the Environment. Czech Technical University in Prague. Bean, S. Ida Eds. Critical Practice in an Age of Complexity pp. Tucson: University of Arizona. Kontovourkis Ed. Nicosia: University of Cyprus.
Doherty, G. Prototypes in Pinkenba. In Nordes — In the Making Vol. Ehrenfeld, J. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Gehl, J. Cities for People Vol. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press. Hensel, M. FORMakademisk, 3 1 , 36— Mostafavi, M. Ecological Urbanism. Doherty, Eds. Oslo: Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
Rich Design Research Space. Form Akademisk, 1 1 , 28— Systems Oriented Design: The emergence and development of a designerly approach to address complexity. Reitan, P. Lloyd, E. Bohemia, L. Nielsen, I. Lutnaes Eds. Oslo: HIOA. Sweeting, B. Design research as a variety of second-order Cybernetic practice. Constructivist Foundations, 11 3 , — Design for sustainability Complex systems Computational modelling Networks System dynamics Agent-based models. Some of the most significant challenges of sustainability can be traced back to the complexity of social and ecological phenomena and the difficulty to connect these with design decisions made at the level of products and business models.
Such complex systems are especially difficult to assess and influence as they do not lend themselves to simple causality relations and prediction Boulton et al, ; Jones et al. A few schools of thought in design are explicitly embracing complexity, such as systemic design Jones et al. Building upon insights from complexity science, they encompass a wide range of design methodologies, such as giga- mapping Sevaldson , system maps Irwin , or co-creation e.
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Sanders and Stappers The vast majority of methods described in systemic and transition design literature are qualitative in nature. This is in stark contrast with the methods used in complexity science — or complex systems science. This interdisciplinary field of science has been built predominantly upon the use of quantitative, computational models, a number of which have been applied to social phenomena, e.
Network theory enables the modelling of a set of elements interacting with each other, such as people in a social group, employees in a company, or companies in a supply chain Newman This type of approach has delivered numerous insights, e. System dynamics can be used to model a system of interconnected stocks and flows and their evolution over time. This method has been used to assess scenarios of global ecological challenges Meadows et al. Their applications include the dynamics of segregation Schelling , Wilensky , policy analysis Lempert , Nikolic and Dijkema , and industrial ecology Axtell et al.
Systems of differential equations can be used to represent certain phenomena at aggregated levels, e. Such computational models could provide key insights for design for complex systems. Table 1 lists examples of computational models from literature that can be easily connected to a design activity. We explore the potential causes of this reluctance through three key questions, and deduct lessons for the development of computational methods in design for complex systems, and therefore design for sustainability.
It is fair to ask whether mathematics can usefully describe social phenomena. Supporting this concern, the field of economics has in the past heavily underplayed the complexity of human behaviours, using drastically simplified assumptions to enable mathematical description Arthur The response to this concern is 2-fold. First, models of human behaviours have greatly improved over the past decades, e. These improved hypotheses however still need to be made explicit in research, as they often reflect certain values and worldviews.
The applications to design are worth considering Lettieri Recent research Moat et al. The ethical considerations of modelling humans should thus always be considered carefully. Developing a computational model requires strong critical thinking and rigour. It can thus be more conducive to removing ideas than to creating new ones. Could it stifle the generative, creative thinking that is central to design? Two approaches to avoiding this shortcoming are to carefully think of the phase in which to integrate the use of a model and to leverage intuition and ideas from the designers and stakeholders as inputs into the model.
Data analysis and modelling can be time consuming and require specialised skills, so they can be cost intensive. Budget or planning may therefore motivate their exclusion. What may address this issue is the development of interfaces and platforms enabling the adaptation of existing models to new situations. As an illustration of such solutions, the platform Kumu offers a user-friendly interface for network analysis. Finally, designers often question whether such models would support the engagement of stakeholders, as they can come across as dry and complicated.
Participatory modelling experiments demonstrate that stakeholder engagement can be an integral part of the modelling process Schmitt Olabisi et al. Finally, some powerful computational models rely on very large datasets from online use, such as Facebook or Twitter data Conte et al. A design problem however does not start with a dataset, but with a problem to solve.
As a result, not every systemic problem will possess such a dataset. Design by definition takes place at an early stage of intervention, before the project itself has delivered data. Are computational models still relevant in these contexts? Here are a few responses to this concern. First, many designers may underestimate the amount of data available today, when leveraging online media and advanced data analysis techniques e.
Second, much can already be learnt form models based on limited data, complemented with plausible assumptions. Uncertain data can also be treated as the source of multiple scenarios Kwakkel Finally, there is an opportunity to approach models in a lean, iterative manner: a first model is built based on theory and hypotheses, which can already help to explore and refine the assumptions of the stakeholders and designers; such a model will in turn inform which data to gather throughout the project, so that more and more refined versions can be developed iteratively.
As the discussion above suggests, there is an opportunity in expanding current design methods with computational models, provided the following considerations:. The next steps in demonstrating this potential is to build case studies of design projects leveraging computational models. Adequate cases would concern issues affected by social complexity, which means that the interactions between individuals play a key a role in outcomes.
Ideally, data sets should be available, either from the start of the project or through its development. Finally, such projects will require stakeholders that are curious and willing to experiment with new approaches. This paper showed that despite the fact that much of complexity science is based on quantitative, computational models, the literature on design concerned with complex systems refers nearly exclusively to qualitative approaches. It explored some of the key questions that may be motivating this reluctance to leverage computational models of social systems, deducted a set of guiding principles for their introduction in design for sustainability, and proposed next steps to this endeavour.
Computational models have repeatedly proved their power to shed light on complex social dynamics of importance to sustainability. It is time to explore their application to the field of a design to enable the transition towards sustainable societies. Axtell, R. Agent-based modeling and industrial ecology.
Journal of Industrial Ecology, 5 4 , Disentangling intangible social—ecological systems. Global Environmental Change, 22 2 , Boulton, J. Embracing complexity: Strategic perspectives for an age of turbulence. OUP Oxford. Circle Economy, Policy Levers for a Low-Carbon Economy. Click NL, Knowledge and Innovation Agenda. Conte, R. Manifesto of computational social science. Cosenz, F. Supporting start-up business model design through system dynamics modelling. Management Decision, 55 1 , pp.
A dynamic business modelling approach to design and experiment new business venture strategies. Long Range Planning, 51 1 , pp. Davis, C. Integration of life cycle assessment into agent-based modeling. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 13 2 , pp. Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Towards the Circular Economy, Economic and business rationale for an accelerate transition. Gladwell, M.
The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Little, Brown. Hjorth, P. Navigating towards sustainable development: A system dynamics approach. Futures, 38 1 , Irwin, T. The Emerging Transition Design Approach. Johnson, K. Using participatory scenarios to stimulate social learning for collaborative sustainable development. Ecology and Society 17 2 , 9. Design research methods for systemic design: Perspectives from design education and practice. Systemic design principles for complex social systems. In Social systems and design pp.
Kwakkel, J. Exploratory Modeling and Analysis, an approach for model-based foresight under deep uncertainty. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80 3 , Lakoff, G. Why it matters how we frame the environment. Environmental Communication, 4 1 , pp. Lettieri, N. Future Internet, 8 2 , Meadows, D. The limits to growth. Potomac Associates, New York, , p. Milkoreit, M.
Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review. Environmental Research Letters, 13 3 , Moat, H. Using big data to predict collective behavior in the real world 1. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37 1 , Nikolic, I. On the development of agent-based models for infrastructure evolution.
International journal of critical infrastructures, 6 2 , pp. Nuss, P. Mapping supply chain risk by network analysis of product platforms. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 10, Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature , Sanders, E. Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. Co-design, 4 1 , Scheffer, M. Schmitt Olabisi, L. Using scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling to investigate the future: Lessons from Minnesota Sustainability, 2 8 , Nordes 4.
Sircova, A. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion. PloS one, 10 3 , e Sosa, M. The misalignment of product architecture and organizational structure in complex product development. Management science 50 12 , Templon, J. Tromp, N. Assessing methods for effect-driven design: Evaluation of a social design method.
Design Studies, 43, pp. Van Dam, K. Agent-based modelling of socio- technical systems. Wilensky, U. NetLogo Segregation model. Several recent studies have published well-developed practices of co-creation, design facilitation, and stakeholder convening for advanced design collaboration. There may be many systemic design methodologies that prove effective in their consultative or engagement settings. Yet in any design process requiring consensus in participant decisionmaking, non-parametric design contexts I refer to as Design 3.
Unlike product or service design Design 2. In Design 3. Real stakeholders are not merely representatives of a social system in which they hold membership, they are committed co-producers of the existence of the system of concern. As in a wicked problem, each selection of stakeholder matters, and they co-create a framing and context that remains path-dependent, that cannot be undone. Vision, context and direction setting are extremely sensitive to initial conditions, and — especially when performed well — may create a lock-in effect with confirmation of beliefs among actors that their choices represent desirable preferences for future system participants.
In systemic design we face the wicked problem dynamic of a changing problem frame with each selection of participants. We can see shifts between each stage of a progressive design process, sustaining an essentially artificial co-creation engagement. These methodologies initiate design co-creation from visioning and problem framing, through system concept formulation, and toward consensus on collective action.
All of these activities require stakeholder insight and validation, and much less design guidance and content as necessary in D2. Any design process may be irrelevant if stakeholder selection fails to represent the requisite exogenous variety in their social system AND fails to enroll authentic commitment from those selected stakeholders.
Because design disciplines are predicated on a tradition of creative problem solving, these functions are often underdeveloped. We do not select and enroll sufficiently well enough to guarantee an effective result.
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Western culture now exists in what we might call a late-modernist knowledge society, and we have centred users and stakeholders as the source of knowledge and validation. Human-centering is itself presented as evidence of ethical practice, or at least, a necessary sensitivity to multivocalism in design process. We clearly would not decide a consensus for real social system participants. Yet how are we disclosing ourselves as lifeworld-sensitive designers, when we, perhaps even worse, decide who will be the system participants?
Design problematics in the many domains we now touch involve social complexity and the complex multiplicity of stakeholders. If we recognize that stakeholder co-creation is a context for design facilitation, we bring forth skills for different roles than product or service designers.
We systemic designers are neither authentically domain experts or visionaries in the highly complex fields in which we serve, such as urban planning, healthcare, education, ecological community design, even AI and technology. The search for an authentic commitment, our stake in the game, must be negotiated in our experience and contributions to domains in which design is demonstrated through care, not just performance.
Based on two design action research cases performed with a large US research lab and Canadian foresight studies, we advance a sampling model that integrates four dimensions:. A model for Requisite Stakeholder Variety enables robust sampling for ontological representation, variety, biases and diversity of knowledge, and exogenous representation commitment e.
A canonical stakeholder selection model maps selected foresight categories e. This mapping identifies significant relationships of knowledge and trends across domains and disciplines. At minimum the stakeholder sampling model provides a checklist that exposes possible risks and blind spots in the available composition of stakeholders or experts. The model further provides a schema for identifying values conflicts between worldviews and other attributes associated with known stakeholder interests such as strategic preferences that planners wish to include.
We have proposed an approach called evolutionary sampling, that iteratively samples stakeholders from across sets of covarying dimensions identified within the social system being designed. This method also effectively enables planners and sponsors to reveal biases and risks and to trade-off potential leaders, dominant voices, and under-represented minority views within the social system of concern.
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How people harness their collective wisdom and power to construct the future in co-laboratories of democracy. Information Age Publishing. Taleb, N. The Skin in the Game as a Risk Filter. Understanding Design 1,2,3,4: The rise of visual sensemaking. Poldma ed. New York: Fairchild Books, pp. Bringing systemic thinking into design education—and practice—takes many forms. Work described at previous RSD conferences e.
Sevaldson , and in the wider community around systemic design, cybernetics, and related fields such as transition design, has emphasized the value and importance of particular systems concepts and approaches, from the leverage points and stocks, flows, and buffers of Donella Meadows , to the conversation models of Dubberly and Pangaro e. Among other useful concepts, one pair of ideas from the systems and psychiatry milieu of the s and 70s has proved applicable in provoking design students to consider systemic effects in relation to aspects of interaction with digital technology in everyday life, and enabling new kinds of analyses: R.
These knots are essentially about people trying to understand what someone else understands about them, or in our terms, how someone understands their relationship with a system. But that understanding changes how they relate to the system, and the system in turn then changes the relationship, and a tangle or knot emerges.
They are playing at not playing a game. If I show them I see they are, I shall break the rules and they will punish me. I must play their game, of not seeing I see the game. Some later patterns verge into forms of concrete poetry which are essentially systems diagrams e. Figure 3 shows a knot approach to a common issue in design for behaviour change—a perceived collective action problem.
In this context, it refers to dilemmas, situations where someone feels—or experiences— being pulled or pushed metaphorically in two contradictory directions at once causing stress, unhappiness, or decision paralysis. In the conference presentation and subsequent paper, I will develop both the theory behind these concepts and how they fit with systemic design, and also discuss practical examples of how students applied the ideas to explore systems perspectives on topics including Facebook targeting advertising, culture around food and fashion, and design for sustainable behaviour.
I will also offer some tentative methods for how knots and double binds can be used within participatory design processes and user research with a systemic design focus.
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Aguirre Ulloa, M. Co-designing with relationships in mind: Introducing relational material mapping. Form Akademisk, 10 1 , pp. Bateson, G. In: Steps to an Ecology of Mind, pp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Boehnert, J. Design, Ecology, Politics: Towards the Ecocene. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Box, G. Empirical model- building and response surfaces. New Jersey: Wiley. Conklin, J. Cybernetics and Human Knowing 22 2—3 , pp. Fantini van Ditmar, D. Interactions 23 1 , pp. Lockton, D. Oslo, Norway, October 18—20, Systemic design teaching and learning Engineering design Master program Educational toolkits Bio-inspired design.
What if we were better and faster in finding and implementing solutions supporting the transition towards a more sustainable society and planet? What if transdisciplinary teams were designing from cradle-to-cradle, generating circular opportunities but no waste?
What if our educational system were equipped to train systemic design thinking and doing for sustainability to everyone? Systemic Design Labs empower engineering and interdisciplinary Master students to become change agents for sustainability. Outdoor experiences, biomimicry, fabrication and transdisciplinary partnerships help to develop skills in sustainability, critical systems thinking, bio-inspired creativity, circular design and service understanding, embedding technical work within social-ecological systems.
Engineering design education is facing growing responsibility for contributing to the global societal goal of sustainability in a world of increasing complexity. Students have to be empowered to proactively design products from a systemic perspective, where ecological life cycle design is integrated with traditional engineering design skillsets, also in relation to social factors and user needs.
The Systemic Design Labs SDL initiative at ETH Zurich builds on established teaching in engineering design and introduces systemic design thinking and doing in an innovative format based on experiential didactics and outdoor creativity. We developed a new, integrated modular block course for MSc and PhD engineering students, where ecological design skills and service understanding are combined to better cope with the increasing complexity of current and future sustainability design challenges. We use bio-inspired design, fabrication with sustainable materials and product systems mapping as innovative but proven didactics to spur creativity, holistic and critical thinking within a sustainability context.
We prototype an educational fabrication toolset for teaching systemic design and sustainability in schools, while engaging in transdisciplinary partnerships for societal impact and gaining realworld experience. The SDL is an initiative at ETH Zurich to develop, experiment and implement innovative educational offerings in sustainability and engineering design. Starting from engineering design, SDL integrates the natural sciences and the humanities, eventually reaching out with flexible learning modules to teaching creative, systemic design for sustainability to everyone.
We showcase a set of new SD courses at ETH Zurich where we built skis, kiteboards, skateboards, educational snowshoe kits and knives in the academic years The courses were setup to one part as more of a classic lecture and seminar-based courses on sustainability science and systemic design theory; the second part consisted of fabrication parts, experimenting with practical tools to design and prototype. Students showed and expressed high interest and engagement in and beyond the course, with multiple requests for further project opportunities. The SDL aims to integrate systemic thinking and doing for sustainability in current engineering design education and practice.
SDL crosscuts traditional engineering disciplines to address critical human needs and foster inter-departmental cooperation. We achieve these aims in seven fundamental ways: First, we sensitize students for the potential to developing sustainable solutions for pressing societal problems. Second, we engage students in systems thinking by mapping an engineering design challenge within its greater societal and service context, working interdisciplinary. Fourth, we teach life cycle analysis and circular design by working with natural materials, expanding from the current engineering focus on high tech materials and metals.
Fifth, we advocate critical thinking for sustainability by letting students design and fabricate an educational snowshoe building toolkit for schools, as an initial example, based on established systemic design principles. Sixth, we transfer the practically derived skills to a complex real-world application of a transdisciplinary TD partnership, and seventh, we maximise outreach by spreading the educational toolkits, by offering modular course concepts to partners, and by publishing course movie.
During one of the new SDL courses and as a main output to increase outreach, students systemically designed and prototyped an educational toolkit. The educational toolkit has three main didactic functions and one general goal: First, students apply their acquired skills and material knowledge on something concrete; second, students prototype and fabricate with a functional and user purpose; third, students not only fabricate, but design the kit with the aim that others can use it to teach systemic design to their students — this requires a self-reflective process; and fourth, the toolkit significantly increases public outreach of the SDL since it is distributed to schools and the broader public.
The guiding narrative behind the toolkit idea is that of a modular, multifunctional and systemic designed backpack, something practical that most people can connect with. The backpack is useful in daily life and for exploring the outdoors, it aims to take people out in nature as the best teacher in sustainability and systemic design. It can be equipped with a variety of practical tools and things for an exploration, such as snowshoes, a stove, hiking poles, a flask, a wind-powered phone charger, a hand or solar-powered torch, and similar tools.
The SDL tools can all be carried in the backpack and are of help in outdoor activities yet designed with careful attention to environmental resources and impact. The backpack and each tool are designed according to systemic sustainability guidelines and thus of value as such. It motivates people to go outdoors, while the design inspirations are drawn from nature. Organizations are struggling to find ways how to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of the societal challenges in the current dynamic environment. Linear approaches are considered insufficient to deal with current dynamic, complex challenges Conklin, ; Snowden, In order to deal with this, organizations need to improve their adaptivity: to become sensitive to what is happening outside their boundaries, and to act upon external signals in flexible ways.
Organizations that enable an adaptive response open up adaptive space by engaging networks and emergence Uhl-Bien, In the last decades, a more strategic role for design and designers has been found to help organizations to deal with complexity and uncertainty in a dynamic world e. In this paper we present our approach to open up adaptive space in an organization in a designerly way, and our first learnings when applying this approach in a real-life case example.
The core mechanism in adaptivity relates to feedback. However, in volatile situations mere reacting on changes in the environment is insufficient. A proactive attitude is required and a sense of ownership to actively seek for weak signals of change. It helps to have experienced a similar situation before to make sense of the emerging future situation and to be able to make better decisions in the present.
The exploration of possible futures allows a cross-disciplinary group to gain insights and build understanding on future societal challenges. Future probing opens up adaptive space by inviting people to step out of operational flow and link up with other disciplines for exploration. Our two-tier approach consists of first exploring possible future visions by means of concrete manifestations of possible futures e. Gardien, , followed by niche experiments intended to put pressure on a system e. The process starts with mapping the current situation, stakeholders, trends and drivers.
From a combination of trends and weak signals a range of future visions is explored by making tangible future probes. These are products or services, that represent the projected future in a provocative way, and enable people to experience and discuss how they would deal with such a future and what are underlying values and motives.
The narratives and insights are used to develop so called future enriched experiments, to poke the current system to evoke movement. Together, the research group Co-design and a provider of ICT infrastructure to Dutch research and education institutes explored futures where data are abundant, along three lines: autonomy, educational big data and data ownership knowledge development. The intention of the project was to design, lead and communicate a process, that would activate employees to deal with future changes professional development , and that would start a cultural change in the organization toward a learning, prodaptive organization systemic change.
The details of the approach were developed during the project by a core team of both frontrunners from the organization and codesign researchers. This development was guided by these design values: pushing boundaries, discovery by serendipity, enabling to act and make, cross-disciplinary collaboration, learning from the future. The frontrunners acted as ambassadors of the three themes and reached out to other employees to take part in thematic embassies, based on curiosity and expertise.
Furthermore, students were involved for their youthful energy and to look from fresh perspectives. Step 1: by mapping the current system a dialogue about trends and drivers, like data accessibility open, closed , automatization and robotization, instigated the discovery of new frames. Step 2: experiential far-future probes visionary prototypes were developed as entry point to this new world. People were asked how they would deal with such a situation. Students appeared open to some kind of fair trade, but demanded that use by commercial third parties would be prevented at any time. Step 3: although in this case we did not yet conduct near-future probing experiments, it would be valuable to investigate how students could have more control over and insight in the personal data, that are now kept by educational institutions, for instance in a personal education ID.
Currently an employee is researching this in a PhD-trajectory. When putting the future probing approach to practice, it appeared difficult to let go of current frames and thinking patterns in favor of more radical innovation. However, we encountered difficulties in trying to hold this adaptive space to facilitate more continuous innovation. It is this need for which there currently exists no fulfillment in their information seeking practices. An institution's scholarly output has had archival and access systems, via disciplinary communities, for centuries.
But the vast majority of institutions have never archived or provided access to their most voluminous intellectual output: their teaching and learning materials. On any collegiate campus, on any given day, truly prodigious amounts of information are created and exchanged within its classrooms, in the lectures, handouts, syllabi, and slides of the instructors, and in the discussions, projects, papers, and assignments of its students. These materials are accessible only ephemerally and limitedly through course management systems, and efforts to share them are fractured and exist only at departmental levels at best.
Providing a larger, preserved repository of these materials appears to be aligned with the needs and goals of potential IR users at UCB, a result that corroborates other findings [ 33 ]. In addition, the personas reveal other potential IR design facets and policies. Charles Williams, for instance, would probably benefit from an intermediary to the repository, a liaison that can assist in depositing and describing materials uploaded to the IR.
This persona represents a cadre of senior faculty at many institutions upon whom the digitization of information brought about by the internet has had less effect than it has perhaps had on their more junior colleagues. For faculty members represented by the persona of Charles Williams, an IR is yet another information system that is divorced from the information seeking behaviors they have learned over several decades, and in which they are largely entrenched.
Expecting, or even mandating, that they deposit specific materials without assistance is probably unreasonable, a mistaken assumption that would certainly limit the value they place on the IR, and could thereby exclude them from it: "[M]any technologies Conversely, providing such an intermediary has been shown to empower users and encourage active participation and interaction with the technology [ 35 ].
The other faculty persona, Anne Chao, is quite another story. Though she shares some of Professor Williams's concerns regarding the time required to deposit items in the IR, she is well versed in many technologies and displays more interest in using and contributing to an IR.
An intermediary would benefit her as well, but would perhaps be less necessary than it appears to be for Charles Williams. She is primarily, and it seems almost exclusively, interested in the IR as a repository of teaching and learning materials, not research. But the persona of Professor Chao raises a very interesting design issue. She already uses websites and blogs to share research materials, and if an active and flexible IR were created with its emphasis on teaching materials, it is conceivable that she might redirect her efforts to archive and disseminate her research to the IR.
Allowing her to easily extract her materials from the IR to populate her websites and blogs would save her time and effort, by enabling the IR and the library to curate and preserve her materials on her behalf. For instance, Weatherley and others demonstrated how providing a simple, yet flexible web service protocol for accessing the Digital Library for Earth System Education DLESE collections enabled educators and content contributors to use the library as a virtual archive for creating their own personal and organizational web sites.
This sort of design where the IR underpins portions of faculty and departmental web pages could save the individuals responsible for maintaining these web sites significant time and effort, a promotional aspect that has not been followed up on by most IR architects [ 36 ].
And it is in this ramification that the persona of Rahul Singh is most poignantly understood and discussed. Though his persona is a graduate student, he represents both students and faculty. He is keenly aware that there already exists a multitude of mechanisms for delivering and sharing research materials, and that an IR would simply add yet another.
He does feel, however, that these existing mechanisms do not provide certain capabilities that would be of great importance to him. He wants to use the IR as a means of promoting his group's research to campus colleagues, and also to identify potential collaborators. This conceptualization of an IR is perhaps the most divorced from what most designers envision, and provides a valuable opportunity for re-conceptualization of IRs and their contribution to their constituencies. An IR that allows users to create their own presences within the system, such as wikis, blogs, and social networking systems do, would be greatly attractive to Rahul.
Policies and technical designs that allow a broad range of user-generated content to be overlaid on a rich metadata-driven database could provide Rahul a single system where he archives and disseminates his teaching and research materials. Advances in repository infrastructures are heading in this direction, providing the ability to put a wide variety of semantic overlays over distributed repository collections [ 37 ]. Finally, it is in the persona of Julia Fisher that some of the enthusiasm for an IR as a facilitator of a revolution in scholarly communication is echoed.
Julia is in the early years of her graduate studies, and thus is less socialized and entrenched in the norms of her discipline. She is frustrated by the rigid, proprietary enclosures of research data constructed over the centuries, and would be greatly pleased to both share and access data through an IR.
This sentiment of Julia's, coupled with the social needs of both Rahul and Anne, could help IR stakeholders conceive their designs as not only archives of teaching materials or even published research, but perhaps its underlying data and works in-progress.
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Enthusiasm for sharing data pre-publication, even pre-analysis, is demonstrated in another ARL report on "E-Science" [ 38 ], and parallels in many ways early enthusiasm for IRs themselves. In the personas of Julia and Rahul, we finally see the first reflection of architects' enthusiasm in users. Whether or not the IR at UCB will be able to incorporate some of the design implications the personas have revealed remains to be seen. UCB is participating in a cooperative IR project that involves many types of libraries, and the variety of users involved in the design complicates the process, much as other similar projects have discovered [ 39 ].
The personas will help guide design and policy-making, and inform architects as to the needs and goals of IR users. If IR design more generally can move in the direction the UCB personas suggest, they may prove to be more attractive opportunities for faculty and graduate students to share their intellectual output. Providing more customized and user-centered design for them could work toward solving some of the dilemmas IR architects face and contribute to increased participation on behalf of faculty and graduate students.
Recent developments in the world of scholarly communications, including Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences decision to mandate deposit of published research authored by its faculty, the National Institutes of Health's mandate that research funded by its grants be deposited into the disciplinary repository of PubMed, the work of physicists to address the issues globally throughout their discipline via arXiv , and the rather quick succession of similar decisions by other colleges at Harvard and Stanford Universities, perhaps do indeed herald the change that early IR enthusiasts envisioned.
IRs that provide broad opportunities to share a wide range of materials in a variety of ways, coupled with disciplinary repositories that provide open-access to research and data, could indeed lead to a paradigmatic shift in scholarly communications, university and college librarianship, and indeed, in how teaching, learning, and research is conducted. The early efforts of IR architects may not have led to immediate change, but there is every reason to believe they ultimately will, and the UCB personas can contribute to our understanding of the differences in user needs and standard IR design goals.
To change the norms and practices a community has developed over centuries is difficult, but developing a keen understanding of users' actual needs and desires can help us to design systems that meet users where they are at, and support the emerging information practices of today's scholars and learners. Professor Charles Williams Professor of History Age: 61 Research: English history in the Anglo-Saxon era Teaching: Usually one class per year Service: Faculty search committees, advising doctoral students, and faculty evaluation committees.
Charles is a professor at the Department of History, and has been a faculty member at the University of Colorado for 34 years. He is still actively involved in his research on English history in the Anglo-Saxon era, but after many years of hard work, he is also trying to spend more time away from the university.
Charles is an avid fisherman and enjoys spending time at his cabin near Carbondale, Colorado. He finds the cabin a peaceful retreat that helps him concentrate on finishing his latest book on Alfred the Great. He also spends his free time with his wife, Megan, and their two daughters - Monica and Ashley - who live in Boulder area and visit often on the weekends to help out around the house and with their garden. Professor Williams has never been able to catch up with the breadth of resources that are available to him on the internet today.
However, he does not feel like he is missing out on much. For his research, the library offers him the books that he needs and he knows how to look up their availability using the Chinook catalog search he has a direct link saved on his computer in his office. Research in his field is primarily shared through books, so he never has to worry about looking for journal articles in any of the electronic databases. Professor Williams is the only person at CU that specializes in his area of research and one of a few in the world , so he never collaborates on his research with other individuals at CU.
However, he occasionally does discuss the content of his courses with interested departmental faculty, and due to his faculty evaluation engagements he does often review the syllabi and teaching materials of the faculty he is evaluating. Charles would not mind sharing some of his teaching resources e. Also, when evaluating the teaching of other faculty members, the IR would help Charles if the teaching resources of these faculty members were available through the repository.
Figure 2: Rahul Singh Persona. Rahul Singh is a sixth year biology doctoral student at the University of Colorado. He is part of a large, person research group studying RNA evolution, and he is hoping to finally finish his dissertation on the early pathways of RNA next year. Rahul is originally from Delhi, India. He lives in CU's student family housing with his wife, Rani, who is also a biology doctoral student.
They both enjoy cooking traditional Indian food in their home whenever they have time. Rahul is also actively involved with the Indian Students Association at the CU, and actively attends social gatherings organized by the association. Rahul already feels like he has too many resources for finding relevant research including online databases, pre-print servers, Google, and personal contacts throughout the biology community.
On occasion he also uses Chinook to find a specific journal article. His biggest frustration is when he uses Chinook and finds out that he does not have access to an article and often has to end up spending his own money to get access. Rahul's research output is tied directly to his research group, and a variety of outlets such as journals, pre-print servers, archives, and conferences are used to share the group's completed research and works-in-progress.
Rahul usually spends about 60 to 70 hours a week at the research lab, and he is also a TA for the General Biology 1 course. He finds his TA duties very straightforward, and usually can just reuse the handouts and resources created by past graduate students. However, due to spending so much time in the lab, Rahul often feels isolated from other graduate students and faculty from around the campus and even in his own department.
He feels that CU lacks an outlet where the community's ideas and interests can be actively shared. Rahul is primarily looking to the IR to help him connect with other graduate students and faculty at CU. He wants to be able to search the IR using general topics areas that span across departments that he is interested in and hopefully find graduate student and faculty with the same general interests.
He would also share various resources e. Rahul would also like to promote his research group through the IR. The group's web site is always out-of-date because no one is skilled enough to update it on a regular basis.
A page that allows him to describe the group's focus and the individual researchers would be very helpful. He would also be willing to share the group's research that is published in other outlets with open access through IR. But a feature that allows him to share specific resources only with individuals and research groups, would enable him to use the IR more frequently as a collaboration tool.
Figure 3: Professor Anne Chao Persona. Anne Chao is a well-known researcher in the education field, and has been an Associate Professor of Education at the University of Colorado for the past 11 years. She leads a six-person research group at CU that is funded by both the federal and state governments, and is the editor of the American Educational Research Journal. She is married, and her husband's name is Ray, and they have two children, Charlie and Julie.
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